Frederick I (Barbarossa)

Frederick I (Barbarossa)
(c. 1122–90)
   Frederick was the nephew of Emperor Conrad III and was elected King of Germany in 1152 on his uncle’s death. He was anxious to restore the rights of the German monarchy and, to this end, he issued a proclamation of peace and built up an efficient administrative organisation. In 1154 he invaded Italy, with the approval of Pope hadrian iv. He repressed the Lombard communes and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. However, his alliance with the Pope disintegrated when Frederick’s plans threatened the Pope’s secular power. Pope Hadrian’s successor, Alexander III, was not recognised by Frederick, who chose to support the Antipope Victor IV. After a schism lasting seventeen years and in the face of military defeat, the Emperor submitted to Alexander, but not before he had persuaded his antipope to canonise his predecessor, the Holy Roman Emperor charlemagne. In 1189 Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade, which was designed to drive the Sultan Saladin from Jerusalem. This was the culmination of his ambitions as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, but he was drowned in the river Saleph in Cilicia before he could reach the Holy Land.
   G. Barraclough, The Origins of Modern Germany (1947);
   P. Munz, Frederick Barbarossa: A Study in Mediaeval Politics (1969);
   M. Pacaut, Frederick Barbarossa (1970).

Who’s Who in Christianity . 2014.

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  • Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor — Frederick I Barbarossa [Meaning Redbeard .] (1122 ndash; 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy at Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by… …   Wikipedia

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  • Frederick II — 1. See Frederick I (def. 2). 2. ( Frederick the Great ) 1712 86, king of Prussia 1740 86 (son of Frederick William I). * * * I German Friedrich known as Frederick the Great born Jan. 24, 1712, Berlin died Aug. 17, 1786, Potsdam, near Berlin King… …   Universalium

  • Frederick Barbarossa — noun Holy Roman Emperor from 1152 to 1190; conceded supremacy to the pope; drowned leading the Third Crusade (1123 1190) • Syn: ↑Frederick I, ↑Barbarossa • Instance Hypernyms: ↑Holy Roman Emperor …   Useful english dictionary

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